Metadata for 'Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 3'


General Information

Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 3
Previous Version(s)
ESM_Forcing_and_Verification (Earth System Model Forcing and Verification)
The eVolv2k database includes estimates of the magnitudes and approximate source latitudes of major volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection (VSSI) events from 500 BCE to 1900 CE. The VSSI estimates incorporate recent improvements to the ice core records in terms of synchronization and dating, refinements to the methods used to estimate VSSI from ice core records, and includes estimates of the random uncertainties in VSSI values. Ice core-derived volcanic sulfate deposition composites for Antarctica (Sigl et al., 2014) and Greenland (Sigl et al., 2015, Zielinski et al., 1995) are scaled to volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection based on a method similar to that of Gao et al. (2007). More details are described by Toohey and Sigl (2017).

Compared to version 2, this update includes reassignment of eruption region for minor events in 1654, 1414, 1381, 688, 379 and -430. Also, minimum flux threshold adjusted downwards so as to include small Greenland flux for events in 1463, -190 and -430. Finally, events with 0 VSSI removed.

In addition, a reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the VSSI estimates and the EVA v1.2 volcanic forcing generator (Toohey et al., 2016) is provided. Complete optical properties (extinction, single scattering albedo, scattering asymmetry factor) as a function of height, latitude and time can be produced using the eVolv2k VSSI database and the EVA forcing generator. EVA version 1.2 includes a fix of a minor bug which affected the spatiotemporal distribution of AOD, most notably for extratropical eruptions.

Gao, C., Oman, L., Robock, A. and Stenchikov, G. L.: Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D9), doi:10.1029/2006JD007461, 2007.

Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Büntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schüpbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M. and Woodruff, T. E.: Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years, Nature, 523, 543¿549, doi:10.1038/nature14565, 2015.

Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Toohey, M., Curran, M., Das, S. B., Edwards, R., Isaksson, E., Kawamura, K., Kipfstuhl, S., Krüger, K., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., Motizuki, Y., Motoyama, H., Pasteris, D. R. and Severi, M.: Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nat. Clim. Chang., 4, 693-697, doi:10.1038/nclimate2293, 2014.

Toohey, M. and Sigl, M.: Volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9(2), 809–831, doi:10.5194/essd-9-809-2017, 2017.

Toohey, M., Stevens, B., Schmidt, H. and Timmreck, C.: Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 9(11), 4049–4070, doi:10.5194/GMD-9-4049-2016, 2016.
Dr. Matthew Toohey (
stratospheric sulfur injections, volcanic sulfur emissions
Spatial Coverage
Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Temporal Coverage
-500-01-01 to 1900-01-01 (calendrical)
21.24 MiB (22273189 Byte)
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
Find data Export dataset acronyms


Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael (2019). Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 3. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/eVolv2k_v3

[Entry acronym: eVolv2k_v3] [Entry id: 3873213]