Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 2

doi:10.1594/WDCC/eVolv2k_v2

Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael

ExperimentDOI
Summary
The eVolv2k database includes estimates of the magnitudes and approximate source latitudes of major volcanic stratospheric sulphur injection (VSSI) events from 500 BCE to 1900 CE. The VSSI estimates incorporate recent improvements to the ice core records in terms of synchronization and dating, refinements to the methods used to estimate VSSI from ice core records, and includes first estimates of the random uncertainties in VSSI values. Ice core-derived volcanic sulfate deposition composites for Antarctica (Sigl et al., 2014) and Greenland (Sigl et al., 2015, Zielinski et al., 1995) are scaled to volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection based on a method similar to that of Gao et al. (2007). More details to be published in a forthcoming article (Toohey and Sigl, in prep).

Compared to version 1, this version (1) contains estimates of the random error in the VSSI estimates, (2) includes a clarification regarding the format of years in the BCE period by including both years BCE/CE and according to the ISO 8601 standard (which includes a year 0), and (3) includes some minor modifications to the VSSI values.

In addition, a reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the VSSI estimates and the EVA v1 volcanic forcing generator (Toohey et al., 2016) is provided. Complete optical properties (extinction, single scattering albedo, scattering asymmetry factor) as a function of height, latitude and time can be produced using the eVolv2k VSSI database and the EVA forcing generator.

Gao, C., Oman, L., Robock, A. and Stenchikov, G. L.: Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D9), doi:10.1029/2006JD007461, 2007.

Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Büntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schüpbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M. and Woodruff, T. E.: Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years, Nature, 523, 543¿549, doi:10.1038/nature14565, 2015.

Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Toohey, M., Curran, M., Das, S. B., Edwards, R., Isaksson, E., Kawamura, K., Kipfstuhl, S., Krüger, K., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., Motizuki, Y., Motoyama, H., Pasteris, D. R. and Severi, M.: Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nat. Clim. Chang., 4, 693-697, doi:10.1038/nclimate2293, 2014.

Toohey, M. and Sigl, M.: Volcanic stratospheric sulphur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE, in preparation.

Toohey, M., Stevens, B., Schmidt, H. and Timmreck, C.: Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 9(11), 4049–4070, doi:10.5194/GMD-9-4049-2016, 2016.

Zielinski, G. A.: Stratospheric loading and optical depth estimates of explosive volcanism over the last 2100 years derived from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D10), 20937–20955, doi:10.1029/95JD01751, 1995.
Newer Version(s)
doi:10.26050/WDCC/eVolv2k_v3
Previous Version(s)
doi:10.1594/WDCC/eVolv2k_v1
Project
ESM_Forcing_and_Verification (Earth System Model Forcing and Verification)
Contact
Dr. Matthew Toohey (
 matthew.toohey@nullusask.ca
)
Location(s)
World: Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Spatial Coverage
Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Temporal Coverage
-500-01-01 to 1900-01-01 (calendrical)
Use constraints
For scientific use only
Data Catalog
World Data Center for Climate
Size
21.24 MiB (22273263 Byte)
Format
NetCDF
Status
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
2027-04-25
Cite as
Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael (2017). Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 2. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. https://doi.org/10.1594/WDCC/eVolv2k_v2

BibTeX RIS
[Entry acronym: eVolv2k_v2] [Entry id: 3519876]
Accuracy report
see experiment summary and references
Completeness report
complete
Specification
[observation: Level 2c data are blended data, usually, but not always, from Level 2b. Data from different platforms, but for the same variable, may have been merged or different variables from the same or like platforms merged. https://www.godae.org/Data-definition.html]
Technical Quality Assurance: The number of data sets is checked and not equal 0[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The size of every data set is not equal 0[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The data sets and corresponding metadata are all accessible via internet[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The data size is checked and correct[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The format is verified and correct[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The time description (metadata) and data are consistent[ done ]
Technical Quality Assurance: The variable description and data are consistent[ done ]
QA - SQA Scientific Quality Assurance 'approved by author' 17/05/2017; TQA - Technical Quality Assurance 'approved by WDCC' 16/05/2017
Contact typePersonInstitute
ContactDr. Matthew TooheyGEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
AuthorDr. Matthew TooheyGEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
AuthorMichael SiglPaul Scherrer Institut
investigatorDr. Matthew TooheyGEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
metadataDr. Matthew TooheyGEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel

Is previous version of

[1] DOI Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael. (2019). Reconstructed volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth, 500 BCE to 1900 CE, version 3. doi:10.26050/WDCC/eVolv2k_v3

Is documented by

[1] DOI Sigl, M.; Winstrup, M.; McConnell, J. R.; Welten, K. C.; Plunkett, G.; Ludlow, F.; Büntgen, U.; Caffee, M.; Chellman, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Fischer, H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kostick, C.; Maselli, O. J.; Mekhaldi, F.; Mulvaney, R.; Muscheler, R.; Pasteris, D. R.; Pilcher, J. R.; Salzer, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vinther, B. M.; Woodruff, T. E. (2015). Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years. doi:10.1038/nature14565
[2] DOI Gao, Chaochao; Oman, Luke; Robock, Alan; Stenchikov, Georgiy L. (2007). Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition. doi:10.1029/2006JD007461
[3] DOI Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael. (2017). Volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE. doi:10.5194/essd-9-809-2017
[4] DOI Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia. (2016). Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations. doi:10.5194/GMD-9-4049-2016
[5] DOI Zielinski, Gregory A. (1995). Stratospheric loading and optical depth estimates of explosive volcanism over the last 2100 years derived from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core. doi:10.1029/95JD01751
[6] DOI Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Toohey, Matthew; Curran, Mark; Das, Sarah B.; Edwards, Ross; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Kawamura, Kenji; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Krüger, Kirstin; Layman, Lawrence; Maselli, Olivia J.; Motizuki, Yuko; Motoyama, Hideaki; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Severi, Mirko. (2014). Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era. doi:10.1038/nclimate2293
[7] DOI Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia. (2016). Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): An idealized forcing generator for climate simulations. doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-83

Is new version of

[1] DOI Toohey, Matthew; Sigl, Michael. (2016). Ice core-inferred volcanic stratospheric sulfur injection from 500 BCE to 1900 CE. doi:10.1594/WDCC/eVolv2k_v1

Attached Datasets (2)

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